Whole Chilli

Whole Chilli

Botanical Name : Capsicum annum L., Capsicum frutescens L.

Family : Solanaceae

Commercial Part : Green as well as ripe and dried pod (fruit)

DESCRIPTION

Indian Chilli Varieties

Chilli is the dried ripe fruit of the genus Capsicum. Capsicum annuum is an annual sub –shrub, the flowers of which are borne singly and fruits usually pendent, which provide red peppers, cayenne, paprika and chillies and sweet pepper (bell pepper) a mild form with large inflated fruits.

Capsicum frutescence is a perennial chilly with small sized pods which are highly pungent. It is commonly known as ‘bird chilly’ and ‘Tabasco’.

Different Varieties

BIRDS EYE CHILLI(DHANI)

  • Grown in Mizoram & some areas of Manipur
  • Blood red in colour,highly pungent
  • Harvesting season-October to December
  • Available in Calcutta market
  • ASTA colour value-41.7
  • Capsaicine-0.589%

BYADAGI(KADDI) 

  • Grown in Dharwar Karnataka
  • Red in colour with less pungency or without pungency
  • Harvesting season-January to May
  • Annual Production-21,000 tonnes
  • Available in Hubli-Dharwad markets
  • ASTA colour value-159.9
  • Capsaicine-Negligible

ELLACHIPUR SANNAM-S4 TYPE

  • Grown in Amaravathi District of Maharashtra
  • Reddish in colour and very hot
  • Annual Production – 1800 tonnes
  • Harvesting season-September to December
  • Available in Bombay,Delhi,Ahemedabad and Nagpur
  • ASTA colour value – 70.40
  • Capsaicine-0.2%

GUNTUR SANNAM-S4 TYPE

  • Grown in Guntur,Warangal,Khammam Districts of Andhra Pradesh
  • Skin thick,hot and red
  • Harvesting season – December to May
  • Annual Production – 2,80,000 tonnes
  • Available in Guntur market
  • ASTA colour value- 32.11
  • Capsaicine-0.226%

HINDPUR-S7

  • Grown in Hindpur in Andhra Pradesh
  • Red in colour,hot and highly pungent
  • Harvesting season- December to March
  • Available in Hindpur
  • Capsaicine-0.24
  • ASTA colour value- 33.00

JWALA

  • Grown in Kheda, Mehsana & in South Gujarat
  • Highly pungent, light red in colour,short and the seeds are compact
  • Harvesting season-September to December
  • Available in Unjha market
  • Capsaicine-0.4%

KANTHARI-WHITE

  • Grown in Kerala & some parts of Tamil Nadu
  • Short and ivory white in colour with high pungency
  • Mainly grown as a homestead crop
  • Available in the markets throughout the year
  • ASTA colour value- 2.96
  • Capsaicine-0.504%

KASHMIR CHILLI

  • Grown in temperate regions such as Himachal Pradesh,Jammu & Kashmir and also in sub-tropical regions of North India during winter season
  • Long,fleshy,deep red in colour
  • Harvesting season- November to February
  • Available in major markets of North India
  • ASTA colour value- 54.10
  • Capsaicine-0.325%

MADHYA PRADESH G.T.SANNAM

  • Grown in Indore, Malkapur Chikli and Elachpur areas of Madhya Pradesh
  • Red in colour and pungent
  • Harvesting season-January to March
  • Annual Production – 7500 tonnes
  • Available in major markets of Madhya Pradesh.

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

Chilly is reported to be a native of South America and is widely distributed in all tropical and sub tropical countries including India. It was first introduced in India by Portuguese towards the end of 15th Century. Now it is grown all over the world except in colder parts.

USES

Dry chilly is extensively used as spice in curried dishes. It is also used as an ingredient in curry powder and in seasonings. Bird chilly is used in making hot sauces as pepper sauce and Tabsco sauce. Paprika, Bydagi chilly, Warangal chapatta and similar high colour less pungent varieties are widely used for colour extraction. This colour is highly popular among food and beverage processors for its use as a colourant, since this being a ‘natural plant colour’. As a medicine it is used as an counter irritant in Lumbago, Neuralgia, and Rheumatic disorders. Capsicum has a tonic and carminative action. Taken inordinately it may cause gastro-enteritis. The enzyme isolated from chilly is used in the treatment of certain type of cancers. Oleoresin capsicum is used in pain balms and vaporubs. Dehydrated green chilly is a good source of vitamin ‘c’

INDIAN NAME OF SPICES

  • Hindi : Lal mirch
  • Bengali : Lanka, Lankamorich
  • Gujarati : Marcha
  • Kannada : Mensina kai
  • Malayalam : Mulaku
  • Marathi : Mirchi
  • Oriya : Lanka
  • Punjabi : Lalmirch
  • Tamil : Milagay
  • Telugu : Mirapa kaya
  • Urdu : Lalmirch

FOREIGN NAME OF SPICES

  • Spanish : Pimenton
  • French : Puvre de Guinee
  • German : Paprika
  • Arabic : Filfil Ahmar
  • Dutch : Spaanse Peper
  • Italian : Peperone
  • Portuguese : Pimento
  • Russian : Struchkovy pyeret
  • Japanese : Togarashi
  • Chinese : Hesiung Yali chiao
  • British : Chillies(Hot) Pepper(Sweet)

Whole Chilli

Turmeric Finger

Turmaric

Botanical Name : Curcuma longa L.

Family : Zingiberaceae

Commercial Part : Rhizome or underground stem

DESCRIPTION

Turmeric is the boiled, dried, cleaned and polished rhizomes of Curcuma longa. The plant is a herbaceous perennial, 60-90 cm high, with a short stem and tufted leaf. There are 7 to 12 leaves, the leaf sheaths forms the pseudo stem. The lamina is green above and pale green below and has a length of 30-40 cm and width 8-12 cm. Inflorescence is a central spike of 10-15 cm length. 1-4 flowers are born in axil of the bract opening one at a time. About 30 flowers are produced in a spike. Seeds are produced in capsules and there will be one to numerous sunken capsules in an inflorescence.

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

Turmeric is the boiled, dried, cleaned and polished rhizomes of Curcuma longa. The plant is a herbaceous perennial, 60-90 cm high, with a short stem and tufted leaf. There are 7 to 12 leaves, the leaf sheaths forms the pseudo stem. The lamina is green above and pale green below and has a length of 30-40 cm and width 8-12 cm. Inflorescence is a central spike of 10-15 cm length. 1-4 flowers are born in axil of the bract opening one at a time. About 30 flowers are produced in a spike. Seeds are produced in capsules and there will be one to numerous sunken capsules in an inflorescence. Turmeric is a tropical crop cultivated from sea level to 1200 meter MSL. It grows in light black, black clayey loams and red soils in irrigated and rainfed conditions. The crop cannot stand water logging or alkalinity.

USES

Turmeric is used to flavour and to colour foodstuffs. It is a principal ingredient in curry powder. Turmeric oleoresin is used in brine pickles and to some extent in mayonnaise and relish formulations, non-alcoholic beverages, gelatins, butter and cheese etc. The colour curcumin extracted from turmeric is used as a colourant. Turmeric is also used as a dye in textile industry. It is used in the preparation of medicinal oils, ointments and poultice. It is stomachic, carminative, tonic, blood purifier and an antiseptic. It is used in cosmetics. The aqueous extracts has biopesticidal properties.

INDIAN NAME OF SPICES

  • Hindi : Haldi
  • Bengali : Halud, Pitras
  • Gujarati : Haldhar, Haldi
  • Kannada : Arishia
  • Konkani : Halad
  • Malayalam : Manjal
  • Marathi : Halede, Halad
  • Oriya : Haldil
  • Punjabi : Haldar, Haldhar, Haldi
  • Sanskrit : Haladi, Harita
  • Tamil : Manjal
  • Telugu : Pasupu
  • Urdu : Haladi

FOREIGN NAME OF SPICES

  • Spanish : Curcuma
  • French : Curcuma
  • German : Kurkuma Gelbwurzel
  • Swedish : Gurkmeja
  • Arabic : Kurkum
  • Dutch : Geelwortel
  • Italian : Curcuma
  • Portuguese : Acafrao-da-India
  • Russian : Zholty Imbir
  • Japanese : Ukon
  • Chinese : Yu.Chin

Turmeric Finger

Mustard Seeds

Mustard Seeds

Botanical Name : Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.

Family : Brassicaceae

Commercial Part : Seed

DESCRIPTION

Mustard is an annual herb cultivated as oil seed crop or as vegetable or as fodder, of which, 3 species are known for its condiment value. They are pale yellow or white mustard (Brassica hirta), brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and black mustard (Brassica nigra). The leaves of the plant are alternate, long, bristly branched, petiolate, hairy on both sides. Flowers are small, yellow with 4petals, cruciform. Seeds are 1.5-3mm.

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

The yellow/white mustard is indigenous to Southern Europe, whereas brown mustard is from China introduced to Northern India. The black mustard is endemic in the Southern Mediterranean region. The white mustard is widely cultivated in Australia, China, Chili, Denmark, Italy, Japan, The UK, The Netherlands, North Africa, Canada and USA. Mustard prefers loamy or clayey loam soil. It is grown as rabbi crop in North India. It is raised during rainy season from July to November in South India.

USES

The major processed products are mustard powder used in the manufacture of mayonnaise, dried or dehydrated mustard leaves, whole mustard seeds etc. Whole mustard is used as a flavouring agent in Indian cooking, whereas ground mustard provides flavour and consistency in Bengali fish curries. Mustard flour has preservative and antioxidant properties in addition to providing flavour and colour.

INDIAN NAME OF SPICES

  • Hindi : Rai, Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson
  • Gujarati : Rai
  • Kannada : Sasave
  • Kashmiri : Aasur, Sorisa
  • Malayalam : Kaduku
  • Punjabi : Rai,
  • Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson
  • Sanskrit : Asuri, Bimbata
  • Tamil : Kadugo
  • Telugu : Avalu
  • Urdu : Rai, Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson

FOREIGN NAME OF SPICES

  • Spanish : Mostaza
  • French : Moutarde
  • German : Senfsaat
  • Swedish : Senap
  • Arabic : Khardal
  • Dutch : Mosterd
  • Italian : Senape
  • Portuguese : Mostarda
  • Russian : Gorchitsa
  • Japanese : Shiro Karashi
  • Chinese : Chieh

Mustard Seeds

Dill Seeds

Dill Seeds

Botanical Name : Anethum graveolens L.

Family : Apiaceae

Commercial Part : Fruit

DESCRIPTION

Dill is a herbaceous annual with pinnately divided leaves. The ripe, light brown seeds emit an aromatic odour. The leaves have pleasant aromatic odour and warm taste. Both seeds and leaves are valued as spice.

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

European Dill (Anetheum graveolens) is indigenous to Europe and is cultivated in England, Germany, Romania, Turkey, USA and Russia. The Indian dill (Anetheum sowa), a native of Northern India is bolder than the European dill. It is cultivated as a cold weather crop in many parts of India.

USES

Dill seed is used both whole and ground as a condiment in soups, salads, processed meats, sausages and pickling. Dill stems and blossom heads are used for dill pickles. The essential oil is used in the manufacture of soaps. Both seeds and oil are used in indigenous medicinal preparations. The emulsion of dill oil in water is an aromatic carminative.

INDIAN NAME OF SPICES

  • Hindi : Sowa
  • Bengali : Sowa
  • Gujarati : Surva
  • Kannada : Sabasige
  • Kashmiri : Sor
  • Malayalam : Sathakuppa
  • Marathi : Surva, Shepu
  • Punjabi : Sowa
  • Sanskrit : Satapushpi
  • Tamil : Sathakuppi Sompa
  • Telugu : Sabasiege
  • Urdu : Sowa

FOREIGN NAME OF SPICES

  • Spanish : Eneldo
  • French : Aneth
  • German : Dill
  • Swedish : Dill
  • Arabic : Shibith
  • Dutch : Dille
  • Italian : Aneto
  • Portuguese : Endro
  • Russian : Ukrop
  • Chinese : Shin-Lo

Dill Seeds

Fennel Seeds

fenel seeds

Botanical Name : Foeniculum vulgare Miller

Family : Apiaceae

Commercial Part : Fruit

DESCRIPTION

It is a biennial, aromatic, stout, glabrous, 1.5 to 1.8 mtr high. The ripe fruit (seed) is small, oblong, cylindrical, 6.8mm long, straight or slightly curved, greenish yellow, deeply furrowed, 5 ridged and having agreeable aroma.

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

It is a native of Europe and Asia Minor. It is cultivated extensively in Northern India as a cold weather crop. It comes up well in fairly mild climate. The dry and cold weather favours high seed production. Prolonged cloudy weather at the time of flowering is conducive to diseases and pests.

USES

The leaves of fennel is used for garnishing. Leaves and stalks are used in salads. It is an essential ingredient in Italian sausages, widely used to sprinkle on pizza. Dried fruits have fragrant odour and pleasant aromatic taste and therefore used as a masticatory. They are also used for flavouring soups, meat dishes, sauces, pastries, confectionaries and liquors. The fruits are aromatic, stimulant and carminative.

INDIAN NAME OF SPICES

  • Hindi : Saunf, sonp
  • Bengali : Pan, Muhiri, Mauri
  • Gujarati : Variari
  • Kannada : Badi-sopu
  • Malayalam : Perum jeerakam
  • Marathi : Badishep
  • Punjabi : Saunf
  • Sanskrit : Madhurika
  • Tamil : Shombei
  • Telugu : Sopu, Pedda-jilakara

FOREIGN NAME OF SPICES

  • Spanish : Hinojo
  • French : Fenouil
  • German : Fenchel
  • Swedish : Fankal
  • Arabic : Shamar
  • Dutch : Venkel
  • Italian : Finocchio
  • Portuguese : Funcho
  • Russian : Fyenkhel
  • Japanese : Uikyo
  • Chinese : Hui-Hsiang

Fennel Seeds

Fenugreek Seeds

Fenugreek-Seeds

Botanical Name : Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

Family : Fabaceae

Commercial Part : Fruit

DESCRIPTION

Fenugreek seed is the ripe fruit of an annual herb. This robust herb has light green leaves, is 30-60 cm tall and produces slender, beaked pods, 10-15 cm long, each pod contains 10-20 small hard yellowish brown seeds, which are smooth and oblong, about 3mm long, each grooved across one corner, giving them a hooked appearance.

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

Fenugreek is a native of South Eastern Europe and West Asia, now cultivated in India, Argentina, Egypt and Mediterranean countries (Southern France, Morocco and Lebanon). In India it is grown extensively in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Punjab. It is a cold season crop and is fairly tolerant to frost and very low temperature. It is best suited to tracts of moderate to low rainfall and is sown in all types of soil but perform better in loam and clayey loam with proper drainage. It can also be grown on black cotton soils.

USES

Fenugreek is used both as a food and food additive as well as in medicines. Fresh tender pods, leaves and shoots are eaten as curried vegetable. As a spice, it flavours food. Powder of dried leaves is also used for garnishing and flavouring variety of food. Fenugreek extract is used as a flavouring agent of imitation maple syrup. It is one of the principle constituent of curry powder. The seeds are used in colic flatulence, dysentery, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, chronic cough and enlargement of liver and spleen, rickets, gout and diabetes. It is also used as a carminative, tonic, and aphrodisiac. Fenugreek oil is used in the manufacture of hair tonics.

INDIAN NAME OF SPICES

  • Hindi : Methe
  • Bengali : Methe
  • Gujarati : Methe
  • Kannada : Menthya
  • Malayalam : Ventayan, Uluva
  • Marathi : Methe
  • Oriya : Methe
  • Punjabi : Methe
  • Sanskrit : Methe
  • Tamil : Vendayam or Venthiyam
  • Telugu : Mentulu or Menthulu
  • Urdu : Methe

FOREIGN NAME OF SPICES

  • Spanish : Alholva
  • French : Fenugrec
  • German : Bockshorklee
  • Swedish : Bockshornklee
  • Arabic : Hulba
  • Dutch : Fenegriek
  • Italian : Fieno Greco
  • Portuguese : Alforva
  • Russian : Pazhitnik
  • Japanese : Koroha
  • Chinese : K’u – Tou

Fenugreek Seeds

 

Coriander Seeds

coriander-seeds-whole-1

Botanical Name : Coriandrum sativum L.

Family : Apiaceae

Commercial Part : Leaf and seed

DESCRIPTION

Coriander is an important spice crop having a prime position in flavouring food. The plant is a thin stemmed, small, bushy herb, 25 to 50 cm in height with many branches and umbels. Leaves are alternate, compound. The whole plant has a pleasant aroma. Inflorescence is a compound umbel comprises 5 smaller umbels. Fruit is globular, 3 to 4 mm diameter, when pressed break into two locules each having one seed. Fruit has delicate fragrance; seeds are pale white to light brown in colour.

There are two distinct morphological types, one erect and tall with a comparatively stronger main shoot and the other bushy with a relatively weaker main shoot and longer spreading branches.

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

It is a native of Mediterranean and commercially produced in India, Morocco, Russia, East European countries, France, Central America, Mexico, and USA. Coriander is a tropical crop and can be successfully cultivated as a rabi season crop in an area free from severe frost during February when the crop flowers and sets its seeds.

USES

The young plant is used for flavouring and garnishing curries and soups. The fruits (seeds) are widely used as condiments with or without roasting in the preparation of curry powders, sausages and seasonings. It is an important ingredient in the manufacture of food flavourings, in bakery products, meat products, soda & syrups, puddings, candy preserves and liquors. In medicines it is used as a carminative, refrigerant, diuretic, and aphrodisiac. In household medicines, it is used against seasonal fever, stomach disorders, and nausea. Coriander oil and oleoresins are primarily used in seasonings for sausages and other meat products.

INDIAN NAME OF SPICES

  • Hindi : Dhania or Dhanya
  • Bengali : Dhana, Dhania
  • Gujarati : Kothmiri, Libdhaba
  • Kannada : Kothambri, Kothamiri bija
  • Kashmiri : Deaniwal, Kothambalari
  • Malayalam : Kothumpalari bija
  • Marathi : Dhana
  • Oriya : Dhania
  • Punjabi : Dhania
  • Sanskrit : Dhanyaka
  • Tamil : Kothamalli
  • Telugu : Dhaniyalu

FOREIGN NAME OF SPICES

  • Spanish : Cilantro
  • French : Corriandre
  • German : Koriander
  • Swedish : Koriander
  • Arabic : Kuzhbare
  • Dutch : Koriander
  • Portuguese : Coentro
  • Russian : Koriandr
  • Japanese : Koendoro
  • Chinese : Hu-sui

Coriander Seeds

Cumin Seeds

Cumin Seeds

Botanical Name : Cuminum cyminum L.

Family : Apiaceae

Commercial Part : Fruit

DESCRIPTION

Cumin is the dried, white fruit with greyish brown colour of a small slender annual herb. The surface of the fruit has 5 primary ridges, alternatively has 4 less distinct secondary ridges bearing numerous short hairs. The plant is 15 to 50 cm high. The aromatic seed like fruit is elongated, ovoid, 3 to 6 mm long, slightly bitter and has a warm flavour. The flowers are white or rose coloured in small umbels.

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

Cumin is the dried, white fruit with greyish brown colour of a small slender annual herb. The surface of the fruit has 5 primary ridges, alternatively has 4 less distinct secondary ridges bearing numerous short hairs. The plant is 15 to 50 cm high. The aromatic seed like fruit is elongated, ovoid, 3 to 6 mm long, slightly bitter and has a warm flavour. The flowers are white or rose coloured in small umbels.

USES

Cumin seed have an aromatic odour and bitter taste. It is used as a condiment, and is an ingredient in curry powders, seasonings of breads, cakes and cheese. It is employed in native dishes of Central and South America. In medicine, it is used as a stimulant, carminative, stomachic and astringent. Cumin seed oil is used in perfumery and for flavouring liqueurs and cordials.

INDIAN NAME OF SPICES

  • Hindi : Jira, Jeera, Zira or Safaid jeera Or Zeera
  • Bengali : Safaid jira or Zeera
  • Gujarati : Jiru or Jeeru
  • Kannada : Jeeriege
  • Kashmiri : Zyur
  • Malayalam : Jeerakam
  • Marathi : Jeregire
  • Oriya : Jira, Jeera
  • Sindhi : Zero
  • Sanskrit : Jiraka, Jira
  • Tamil : Ziragum or Jeeragam
  • Telugu : Jidakara, Jikaka

FOREIGN NAME OF SPICES

  • Spanish : Comino
  • French : Cumin
  • German : Romischer Kummel
  • Swedish : Spiskummin
  • Arabic : Kammun
  • Dutch : Komijn
  • Italian : Comino
  • Portuguese : Cominho
  • Russian : Kmin
  • Chinese : Machin

Cumin Seeds

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